A/C Fukuyama

In the early 1990s, optimism was understandable. The collapse of the communist empire and the apparent embrace of democracy by Russia seemed to augur a new era of global convergence. The great adversaries of the Cold War suddenly shared many common goals, including a desire for economic and political integration. Even after the political crackdown that began in Tiananmen Square in 1989 and the disturbing signs of instability that appeared in Russia after 1993, most Americans and Europeans believed that China and Russia were on a path toward liberalism. Boris Yeltsin’s Russia seemed committed to the liberal model of political economy and closer integration with the West. The Chinese government’s commitment to economic opening, it was hoped, would inevitably produce a political opening, whether Chinese leaders wanted it or not.[…](…)But the grand expectation that the world had entered an era of convergence has proved wrong. We have entered an age of divergence. Since the mid-1990s, the nascent democratic transformation in Russia has given way to what may best be described as a “czarist” political system, in which all important decisions are taken by one man and his powerful coterie. Vladimir Putin and his spokesmen speak of “democracy,” but they define the term much as the Chinese do. For Putin, democracy is not about competitive elections so much as the implementation of popular will. The regime is democratic because the government consults with and listens to the Russian people, discerns what they need and want, and then attempts to give it to them. As Ivan Krastev notes, “The Kremlin thinks not in terms of citizens’ rights but in terms of the population’s needs. ” Elections do not offer a choice, but only a chance to ratify choices made by Putin, as in the recent “selection” of Dmitry Medvedev to succeed Putin as president. The legal system is a tool to be used against political opponents. The party system has been purged of political groups not approved by Putin. The power apparatus around Putin controls most of the national media, especially television.

É, pelo visto, a história não terminou. Nem no sentido Hegeliano.

A The New Republic tem uma matéria genial, colocando as novas dicotomias do cenário internacional. Russia vs Istates; Istates vs China; China vs Russia; e o Oriente Médio como um barril de pólvora.

E a dialética continua. E ninguém pensa no historiador!


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