Can we engage in reasoning in the way we inevitably do without disregarding the radical biological contingency of the human species and the human mind? I think there is a conflict here that remains unresolved. The reliance we put on our reason implies a belief that even though the existence of human beings and ourselves in particular is the result of a long sequence of physical and biological accidents, and even though there might never have come to be any intelligent creatures at all, nevertheless the basic methods of reasoning we employ are not merely human but belong to a more general category of mind. Human minds now exemplify it, but those same methods and arguments would have to be among the capacities of any species that had evolved to the level of thinking – even if there were no vertebrates, and a civilization of mollusks or arthropods ruled the earth.
Nagel, The last word, p. 140
Hmn. Talvez fosse o caso de dar uma re-lida neste cara…